For example, the prefixes di – (focusing patients, often, but wrongly as “passive voice,” for the order of the words OVA), meng – (Focus of the agent, often referred to as “active voice” wrongly, for the order of the words AVO, memper and diper – (agent and focal length of the patient), ber- (trepied or habit; intransitive VS order) and ter (acts without agent, such as those that are involuntary, sudden or random, for the order VA – VO); suffixes -kan (causal or beneficial) and -i (rental, repetitive or exhaustive); and Circumfixes ber-…-an (plural subject, diffuse action) and ke-…-an (act or state). Malay has no grammatical subject in the sense that English does.  In non-explanatory clauses, the noun comes before the verb. If there is an agent and an object, they are separated by the verb (OVA or AVO), the difference in the voice of the verb being encoded.  The OVA, often wrongly referred to as “passive,” is the most fundamental and common order of words. In Malay, there are four fundamental parts of language: names, verbs, adjectives and grammatical functional words (particles). Nouns and verbs can be fundamental roots, but they are often derived from other words by prefixes and suffixes. The root words are either names or verbs that can be attached to deduce new words, z.B. masak (for cooking) gives memasak (cook, as verb), memasque (cooked for), dimasak (cooked) as well as pemasak (a cook), masakan (a meal, cooking). Many initial consonants pass through a mutation when prefixes are added: z.B. becomes sapu (sweeping) to penyapu (broom); panggil (to call) will be memanggil (calls/calls), carpet (to yourself seven) will be menapis (Sieifs).
There are no grammatical adjectives in Malay. Instead, stative verbs are used to describe different animated and inanimate objects, places and abstract concepts. Often, derivation changes the meaning of the verb rather significantly: redoubling is often used to emphasize plurality. However, reduplication has many other functions. For example, orang orang means “(all) humans,” but orangagon means “Scarecrow.” Similarly, Hati means “heart” or “liver,” but Hati-hati is a verb that means “be careful.” In addition, not all revised words are naturally plural, such as Orang-Orang “Scarecrows/Scarecrows,” biri-biri “a/some sheep” and kupu-kupu “butterfly/butterfly.”