The increase in Japanese immigration, which was to replace some marginalized Chinese agricultural workers, has met with concerted opposition in California. To appease Californians and avoid an open break with Japan`s emerging world power, President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated the diplomatic agreement in which the Japanese government took on the responsibility of drastically limiting Japanese immigration, especially that of workers, so that Japanese children could continue to attend integrated schools on the West Coast. However, family migration could continue, as Japanese men, with sufficient savings, could bring wives through arranged marriages (“pictured wives”), their parents and minor children. As a result, the Japanese-American population was more gender-friendly than other Asian-American communities, and continued to grow through natural increases, which led to increased pressure to end immigration and further reduce residents` rights. Many Americans argued with the school board that the separation of schools was contrary to the 1894 treaty, which did not explicitly address education, but indicated that the Japanese would obtain equal rights in America. According to the U.S. Supreme Court review decisions (Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896), a state did not violate the equality clause of the U.S. Constitution by imposing racial segregation as long as the various institutions are essentially equal. Tokyo newspapers have denounced segregation as an insult to Japanese pride and honour.
The Japanese government wanted to protect its reputation as a world power. Government officials became aware of the crisis and intervention was needed to maintain diplomatic peace.  Restrictions on Japanese immigration were deemed necessary following an influx of Japanese workers into British Columbia and a wave of anti-Asian sentiment in the province. More than 8,000 Japanese immigrants arrived in Canada in the first ten months of 1907, a dramatic increase over previous years.  Reports that the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway planned to import thousands more Japanese workers to work on the western part of the railway fuelled the anti-Asian atmosphere.  Hostility towards the Asian population turned violent at an Asian Exclusion League rally in Vancouver in 1907. The crowd turned into an uncontrollable mob that targeted the city`s Chinese and Japanese residents and destroyed their personal belongings.  Concessions were agreed in a note that, a year later, consisted of six points.
The agreement was followed by the admission of Japanese students to public schools. The adoption of the 1907 agreement spurred the arrival of “image marriages,” women who were closed remotely by photos.  The creation of distant marital ties allowed women who wanted to emigrate to the United States to obtain a passport, and Japanese workers in America were able to earn a partner of their own nationality.  As a result of this provision, which helped to reduce the gender gap in the Community, from a ratio of 7 men per woman in 1910 to less than 2 to 1 in 1920, japan`s population continued to grow despite the immigration restrictions imposed by the agreement.